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Money Dictionary

 


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a fortiori analysis
In decision theory, an analysis made to intentionally favor alternative solutions when compared to the solution adjudged as best. The alternatives are deliberately weighted to make them look better. If the adjudged-best solution still remains the best, its position as the likely choice is further strengthened. 'A fortiori' is Latin for, 'even more so' or 'more conclusively.'
 
 
la carte
Hotel or restaurant meal consisting of several differently priced dishes which are cooked usually when ordered from a menu. In comparison, a 'per head' (buffet or table d'hte meal) has a fixed number of ready made dishes at a fixed total price per person. French for, by the bill of fare.
 
 
a posteriori
Conclusion or judgment based on induction. It begins with the observed facts and phenomenon, and infers their underlying causes. Latin for, what comes after. See also a priori.
 
 
a priori
Conclusion or judgment based on deduction, a hypothesis based on conclusions or judgments previously assumed. Latin for, from what comes before. See also a posteriori.
 
 
A shares
non voting stock.
 
 
a temporary admission
Alternative term for ATA Carnet.
 
 
A&E
mean either Appropriation & Expense or Analysis & Evaluation.
 
 
A&G
Administrative & General.
 
 
A&M
Additions and Maintenance.
 
 
A&P
acronym for Administrative and Personnel.
 
 
A-B trust
US trust that divides into two trusts upon the death of its settlor. One part (the A-trust) comprises of all the assets of the decedent which are in excess of the exclusions allowed at the time of his or her death, with the surviving spouse at its beneficiary. The other part (the B-trust) owns all the assets which are covered by the exclusions. This arrangement postpones the payment of estate taxes until the death of the surviving spouse. Also called marital residuary trust.
 
 
A-channel
Primary distribution channel through which only first quality goods are sold.
 
 
A-size paper
Alternative term for letter size paper.
 
 
A1
Life insurance: Denotes perfect health of an insurance applicant, and is a measure used in computing insurance premium.
 
 
A4 size paper
International Standards Organization (ISO) standard-size typing paper, 210 MM wide and 297 MM tall (about 8 1/4 x 11 3/4 inch), used in Europe, and rest of the world, except the US and some neighboring countries where 'letter-size' paper (8 1/2 x 11 inch) is used. See also paper sizes.
 
 
AAA
American Accounting Association, Association of Accounting Administrators, or see ACCUMULATED ADJUSTMENT ACCOUNT
 
 
AAA Server
Computer system that provides three essential components of a secure online financial transaction in electronic commerce: (1) Authentication, (2) Authorization, and (3) Accounting. See also commerce server and TACACS.
 
 
AAA-CPA
American Association of Attorney-Certified Public Accountants.
 
 
AACSB
American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business.
 
 
AAFI
Associated Accounting Firms International.
 
 
AAHCPA
American Association of Hispanic CPAs.
 
 
AARF
Abbrev. Australian Accounting Research Foundation.
 
 
AAT
Great Britain, is Association of Accounting Technicians.
 
 
ABA
American Bar Association. See below also.
 
 
ABA transit number
A number on a check, part of a code developed and used by the American Bankers Association. The transit number is used to aid the banks when clearing the checks, by signifying the financial institution as well as the Federal Reserve Bank used by that institution. This number is found near the upper right corner, and appears in the form of a fraction with a numerator and denominator. The numerator indicates the region where the bank is located, as well as the branch number. The denominator consists of the first four numbers of the routing number found at the bottom left of the check.
 
 
abandoned property
Property voluntarily disclaimed, relinquished, or surrendered by its owner(s).
 
 
abandonment
General: Voluntary disclaim of a right or interest (without transferring it to anyone else) in a property, accompanied by a clear act of abandoning that property. Such acts include continuous lack of use and/or maintenance, and failure to pay property taxes. The abandoned property may then be claimed by an occupier (see adverse possession) or may be appropriated by the state. However, obligations (debts, liens, taxes) associated with a property are not discharged when it is abandoned and remain the liability of the owner.
 
 
ABATEMENT
in general, is the reduction or lessening. In law, it is the termination or suspension of a lawsuit. For example, an abatement of taxes is a tax decrease or rebate.
 
 
abbreviated accounts
Shortened but audited financial statement that a qualifying small or medium firm is allowed to file with registrar of companies in the UK. About 45 percent of the active UK firms have opted for abbreviated accounts. See also abridged accounts.
 
 
ABC
ACTIVITY BASED COSTING
 
 
ABC analysis
Analysis of a range of items which have different levels of significance and should be handled or controlled differently. It is a form of Pareto analysis in which the items (such as activities, customers, documents, inventory items, sales territories) are grouped into three categories (A, B, and C) in order of their estimated importance. 'A' items are very important, 'B' items are important, 'C' items are marginally important. For example, the best customers (typically 20 percent of the total number of customers) who yield highest revenue (typically 80 percent of the total revenue) are given the 'A' rating, are usually serviced by the sales manager, and receive most attention. 'B' and 'C' customers warrant progressively less attention and are serviced accordingly.
 
 
ABC inventory classification
Inventory control based on a form of Pareto analysis. The inventory items are divided into three categories (A, B, and C), according to a criterion such as revenue generation, turnover, or value. Typically, 'A' items represent 20 percent in terms of quantity and 75 to 80 percent in terms of the value. Also called usage value analysis. See also ABC analysis.
 
 
ABEND
ABnormal END or ABortive END. System crash or other abnormal termination of a computer program caused by memory conflict or some other (usually unidentifiable) glitch.
 
 
abet
aid and abet.
 
 
ability
HR: Acquired or natural capacity, competence, dexterity, proficiency, talent, etc., that enables an individual to perform a particular act, job, or task successfully at any time. See also aptitude.
 
 
ability to pay
Borrower's ability to service a loan from his or her disposable income or cashflow, or the taxpayer's ability to pay the tax. Called 'capacity' in banking, it is a critical factor in obtaining a loan. See also five C's of credit and fixed charge coverage ratio.
 
 
ability to pay tax
ability to pay principle.
 
 
abiotic
Non-biological factor (such as sunlight), material (such as sulfur dioxide), or process (such as hydrolysis) which can affect living or non-living constituents of an ecosystem. Opposite of biotic.
 
 
able
Party capable of meeting its obligation(s) under a contract, as in the phrase "ready, willing, and able.
 
 
ABM
ACTIVITY BASED MANAGEMENT
 
 
ABNORMAL EXPENSE
EXTRAORDINARY ITEMS.
 
 
ABNORMAL GAIN
NORMAL LOSS.
 
 
ABNORMAL ITEMS
EXTRAORDINARY ITEMS.
 
 
ABNORMAL LOSS
NORMAL LOSS.
 
 
abnormal return
Periodic return on an investment portfolio that is more or less than the average return on all the stocks traded on an exchange during the same period. Compare with excess return.
 
 
ABNORMAL RETURNS
difference between the actual return and that is expected to result from market movements (normal return).
 
 
ABNORMAL SPOILAGE
spoilage that is not part of everyday operations. It occurs for reasons such as the following: out-of-control manufacturing processes, unusual machine breakdowns, and unexpected electrical outages that result in a number of spoiled units. Some abnormal spoilage is considered avoidable; that is, if managers monitor processes and maintain machinery appropriately, little spoilage will occur. To highlight these types of problems so that they can be monitored, abnormal spoilage is recorded in a Loss from Abnormal Spoilage Account in the general ledger and is not included in the job costing inventory accounts (work in process, finished goods, and cost of goods sold).
 
 
abnormal variation
Alternative term for non random variation.
 
 
abort
Abnormal termination or cancellation of a computer program (or a computing session) which results in irretrievable loss of unsaved data and may require a reboot of the system. Abortion may be (1) intentional where the user cannot reach a satisfactory conclusion of a process and needs to start over, (2) initiated by the operating system itself (see system crash), or (3) caused by a power failure. See also ABEND.
 
 
about
Not very exact. In commercial documents, 'about' is taken to mean a difference (tolerance) not more or less than 10 percent of the stipulated amount, quantity, or unit price. See also approximately.
 
 
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